Stepping Right: The Essential Guide to Overpronation and Proper Footwear
If you have foot arthritis, you may be all too familiar with the agony and discomfort that can accompany each step. But did you know that your discomfort could be exacerbated by a biomechanical problem known as "overpronation"? The importance of comprehending this typical foot issue cannot be overstated, as it can severely limit your movement, especially if you have arthritis.
Overpronation is a condition of the feet marked by a disproportionate inward roll of the foot when moving or running. Normally, your foot rolls inward to absorb shock as it contacts the ground. This inward roll is more evident in overpronation, which can strain your ankles and feet more.
Overpronation can cause your arches to collapse and your ankles to roll inward as your foot strikes the ground. Your feet's alignment may be affected, which may then affect how your entire body moves. Think of a pair of shoes with uneven wear, with the inner parts displaying greater signs of use—this uneven wear pattern is a typical indicator of overpronation, as it indicates excessive inward sliding.
It’s important not to confuse overpronation with supination, also known as underpronation, which, in contrast, involves a disproportionate outward roll. Both can affect the foot and the rest of the body by altering natural gait and placing stress on the muscles and joints: overpronation frequently results in conundrums like flat feet and shin splints, whereas supination may result in ankle sprains and plantar fasciitis.   
Causes and Diagnosis of Overpronation
Overpronation can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
- Obesity is a common cause of overpronation because extra body weight puts additional stress on the feet.
- Pregnancy can lead to overpronation due to the added weight and hormonal changes, which can affect foot structure and function.
- Genetic factors such as having flat feet or low arches can increase the likelihood of overpronation.
- If your foot and leg muscles are weak, it can affect the way your foot rolls inward during movement, leading to overpronation.
- Certain injuries (e.g., sprained ankles, stress fractures, runner's knee, sciatica, etc.) can cause changes in your walking pattern, potentially leading to overpronation.
- Wearing shoes that lack appropriate arch support or are worn out can contribute to overpronation.
Through a variety of examinations, healthcare providers can identify overpronation. Physical examinations, evaluating how you move while you walk or run, and occasionally employing imaging tests like X-rays or MRIs to gain a precise look at your foot structure are some of these.
You can also perform the "wet foot test" at home to ascertain whether you overpronate. Step onto a dry, level surface with wet feet to leave your footprint. You probably overpronate if the entire bottom of your foot leaves a complete impression on the ground. However, this test should not be used in lieu of a consultation and exact diagnosis with a healthcare expert.  
Is Overpronation Curable?
While overpronation is not a disease and hence does not have a "cure," its consequences may undoubtedly be managed and mitigated. Orthotics, which are custom-made shoe inserts designed to correct your foot's alignment, may be used as a medical treatment for overpronation. Non-medical therapy could include specific workouts to strengthen foot and leg muscles and lifestyle changes such as weight management and selecting proper footwear.
Physical therapy is critical in the treatment of overpronation. A physical therapist might recommend activities to strengthen your muscles, particularly those that control foot mobility and stability. They can also provide gait therapy to assist in correcting walking or running patterns that lead to overpronation.
Overpronation must be detected and treated as soon as possible to avoid resulting disorders such as chronic foot discomfort, shin splints, and knee and hip problems. If left untreated, it can contribute to a cascade of problems that impact not only the foot but the entire lower body.   
Footwear for Overpronation
- Well-structured arch support
This section of the shoe is designed to support the arch of your foot, which is subjected to a great deal of stress while walking or running. A well-structured arch support helps to distribute weight and pressure evenly over the foot, providing comfort to the arches that flatten during overpronation. This even distribution of weight can also help taper foot fatigue and soreness.
- Firm heel counter
The heel counter is the area on the back of the shoe that wraps around your heel. A sturdy heel counter gives stability to the foot and aids in movement control. This is especially significant for overpronators, as limiting the foot's inward roll can lessen the stress exerted on the ankle and other portions of the foot.
- Midsole cushioning
The midsole is the area between the upper section of the shoe and the outsole. It's meant to absorb shock when the foot hits the ground, which is especially important for overpronators, who often have higher impact forces due to their foot motion. Midsole cushioning improves overall foot comfort, mitigates strain on joints (such as the knees and ankles), and may minimize the likelihood of stress fractures by minimizing impact forces.
- Motion control design
A motion control design provides overall foot stability, enhances balance during movement, and helps maintain proper alignment of the lower body. These factors contribute to efficient energy transfer during walking or running, thus optimizing performance. These shoes, therefore, serve a dual purpose: shielding against potential injuries, while also improving locomotion efficiency.
- Good fit
It is critical that the shoes fit well and are comfortable, conforming to the curve of the foot without pinching or squeezing. A shoe that is too tight or too loose might aggravate overpronation difficulties and lead to other foot problems. Your toes should be able to move freely inside the shoe, and the shoe should be long enough so they don't rub up against the front.
Getting Back on Your Feet
With FlowFeet, you can take a step toward greater comfort and relief. FlowFeet footwear is specifically created to adapt to a variety of foot issues, including overpronation, and each pair combines style, support, and exceptional quality. Don't let foot pain slow you down. Explore the broad collection at Flow Feet and learn how the correct shoes may alter your everyday life.
Naheed Ali, MD, PhD, is a physician by education and a writer by choice since 2005. He earned an MD degree in 2008 and later completed Harvard Medical School's lifestyle medicine training in 2012, before obtaining a PhD in holistic health elsewhere in 2013. He’s also certified in clinical research by National Institutes of Health (NIH).
He brings more than 15 years of experience writing remotely and has more than 15 years of health-related publications to his credit. Now a digital nomad, he’s currently a medical journalist and copywriter